How many integer colours are sufficient to colour an \(n\)-vertex planar graph so that the maximum colour encountered along any path of length at most 2 occurs only once along that path? It turns out that the correct answer is \(\Theta(\log n/\log\log\log n)\). The triple-log comes from the fact every planar graph is contained in the strong product of a planar 3-tree and a very simple graph.
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